Leadership Practices Inventory
LPI 360 Assessment

Leadership Practices Inventory: LPI

What is The Leadership Practices Inventory Assessment (LPI 360)?

The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) has been called the "most reliable and valid instrument for leadership development" by the Center for Creative Leadership. The LPI is an empirical assessment tool, which has been used with over 250,000 leaders and more than a million of the people they lead. More than 120 scientific studies have consistently confirmed the reliability and validity of the LPI and the Kouzes-Posner leadership framework on which it is based.

What Does The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI 360) Measure?

The LPI-360 measures 30 behaviors that have stood the test of time: ongoing research by Jim Kouzes and Barry Posner for almost two decades has proven that leaders engage in these 30 behaviors when performing at their very best. The more frequently leaders exhibit these behaviors, the more one attributes to them the qualities of leadership.

The 30 Leadership Behaviors

How frequently do others see you engage in leadership behaviors?

"Leadership is not about personality. It's about a measurable, teachable, learnable set of behaviors."
                                  — Jim Kouzes

A partial list of the 30 behaviors in the LPI-360:
(You can view the complete list on page 5 of the sample LPI 360-assessment)

  • Speaks with genuine conviction about the higher purpose and meaning of our work.
  • Makes it a point to let people know about his or her confidence in their abilities.
  • Tells stories of encouragement about the good work of others.
  • Asks "what can we learn" when things don't go as expected.
  • Takes the initiative in anticipating and responding to change.
  • Talks about future trends that will influence how our work gets done.
  • Treats others with dignity and respect.

What Are the Benefits of the LPI 360 Assessment?

The LPI-360 increases your self-awareness, improves your leadership acumen, and helps you see your leadership strengths and opportunities for improvement. The LPI enables you to understand the impact of your leadership approach on those you lead.

The 30 behaviors are distilled into five key practices of leadership. The LPI will help you become a leader who is adept at the five practices of leadership.

The Five Practices of Leadership


Model the Way

Leaders set the example by aligning actions with shared values. When you lead by example, you create a picture of what's possible. This is about doing what you say you will do. It's about viewing all your promises as an unpaid debt, and it's about accountability and authenticity. 

Inspire a Shared Vision

The best leaders inspire people by envisioning exciting and ennobling possibilities. Leaders are purveyors of hope. They instill in people the belief that no matter how bad things are, tomorrow is better than today. As Martin Luther said, "Even if I knew that tomorrow the world would go to pieces, I would still plant my apple tree."


Challenge the Process

Bosses are generally concerned about maintaining the status quo. Leaders buck the status quo; they make space for new ideas. Leaders look for opportunities to grow and innovate. They take appropriate risks by constantly looking for small wins along the way and learning from mistakes.

Enable Others to Act

Exceptional leaders give people elbow room. They provide choice and latitude. They promote collaboration, build trust, and strengthen the people they lead by sharing information, power, and discretion. Their leadership approach inspires people to give them their discretionary effort - the best they have to offer.  


Encourage the Heart

Leaders worth following recognize individual contributions by showing appreciation for individual excellence. As Max DePree put it, "The first responsibility of a leader is to define reality. The last is to say thank you." These leaders celebrate the values and victories by creating a spirit of community. They give encouragement, opportunity, and moral support. They give people visibility and a sense of importance. In short, people feel good about themselves when they are in their presence. 

The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) 360 Assessment

View sample (.pdf 2.77 MB)

The LPI is a 360 assessment, providing powerful feedback from a variety of Observers who are selected by the Leader taking the assessment. Observers include manager(s), direct reports, colleagues and other stakeholders. It takes a Leader or Observer 20 minutes to complete the 30-item LPI and verbal comments online.

The LPI 360 is available for purchase on its own. It is also available as part of a 1/2 day workshop for your team.

"Leadership development tools come and go, but for two decades, the 360-degree LPI from Kouzes and Posner endures, and for good reason. it's simply the best."
                  — Brent Green, Ph.D., Director, Organization Effectiveness, McKesson Corporation.

Who Is the LPI 360 Assessment For?

The LPI is for senior leaders who want to sharpen the saw.

It's for aspiring leaders who want to accelerate their leadership development.

It's for individual contributors who want to acquire leadership qualities.

In short, the LPI is for anyone who wants to develop a leadership presence in the room. Leadership is not a specific title or position; leadership is a state of mind. As Kouzes puts it, "leadership is everyone's business." 

What Are Some Resources for the LPI 360 Assessment?

James A. Kouzes, Barry Z. Posner. The Leadership Challenge: How to Make Extraordinary Things Happen in Organizations.
Bruna Martinuzzi, "How to Be a Better Leader: Traits Many Great Leaders Share.
Bruna Martinuzzi, "3 Leadership Skills That Separate Leaders from Bosses."

What Other LPI Assessments Are Available?

Re-assessment Report (To see changes in behavior from the original LPI assessment.)
View sample (.pdf 257 KB)

Group Assessment Report (Combined ratings for a group of leaders in your organization.)
View sample (.pdf 774 KB)

LPI Individual Report
View sample

To order your online LPI, contact us. You will receive your confidential report and a thorough debrief session to help you create an action plan for your leadership development, based on the LPI results. 

What Is Included in the LPI 360 Assessment Package?

  • One personalized LPI-360 Assessment Report (PDF)
  • Unlimited LPI Observer Feedback 
  • An 88-page LPI Leadership Development Planner (PDF)
  • A 37-page Leadership Practices Inventory Participant's Workbook: 10 Steps To Understanding And Using Your LPI Feedback (PDF)
  • A 60-90 minute coaching/debrief session with Bruna Martinuzzi, a certified LPI coach, to help you create an action plan for your development as a leader others willingly want to follow. 

The price depends on volume. To order your LPI and Debrief session: Contact Bruna Martinuzzi

What is the Process for Taking the LPI 360 Assessment? 

  • We will coordinate with your company representative to explain the LPI online process, receive the participant list and email addresses, and establish a deadline date for the completion of the LPI.
  • We send an introductory email to participants with instructions for completing the LPI.
  • Our administration responds to any inquiries from participants and observers about the LPI online process.
  • We remind participants of their LPI feedback status – and assist them in reminding observers.
  • We provide your company representative with periodic updates on the progress of the LPI completion.
  • If need be, we liaise with the company representative to extend the deadline for observers to provide their feedback.
  • We ensure the anonymity of observer feedback.
  • We provide participants with a confidential LPI report.

Frequently Asked Questions

How many questions are on the LPI 360?
The LPI lists 30 behavioral statements. It also includes five open-ended questions that give observers an opportunity to add commentaries. 

How long does it take to complete the LPI 360?
It takes approximately 20 minutes to complete your LPI 360.

How many raters should I invite to provide me with feedback on the LPI 360?
You only need 7 as a minimum for us to generate your LPI Assessment.  Generally, leaders invite up to 15 people. Because not everyone you invite completes the LPI 360, it’s recommended that you sign up as many observers as you can, up to the maximum of 25.

Do I have to complete the LPI 360 in one sitting?
If your LPI session is idle for 45 minutes, you will be logged out. You can log back in to complete your LPI. However, responses to the open-ended questions of the LPI will not be saved. You will have to re-enter these.

Who do I invite to provide me with feedback?
In addition to your manager(s), the people you lead, and your peers, you can select anyone under the category of “other.” This includes clients, previous coworkers, or vendors, for example.  It’s important to select people who have had the opportunity to observe your behaviors.